Law is a set of rules that govern human behavior. These laws can be created by governments or private individuals. The courts and other governmental and social institutions are responsible for enforcing these rules. If you break a law, you may face jail time or fines.
Law is important to ensure orderly society. It also protects individual rights and serves to preserve the status quo. Some legal systems better serve these purposes than others.
There are three types of laws: public, civil and criminal. Public law refers to laws that apply to everyone equally. They can be made by the government or by a group legislature. This can be done through decrees and statutes. However, they are commonly made by the government.
Civil law is less detailed. It is based on judicial decisions. Case law is a type of law based on concrete facts. It can be decided by one judge or by a whole court.
Criminal law is a type of law that deals with crime and punishment. Rules of the police are also part of this category of law.
Commercial law covers property and contract laws. Personal property and intellectual property are also included.
In the United States, competition law is a branch of law that controls businesses that distort market prices. This practice is based on a restraint of trade doctrine.
During the 18th century, the concept of “natural law” was introduced in the writings of Thomas Aquinas. It is an ancient Greek idea that emerged from the notion of justice.